By Robert Underhill
Because the Mideast turns into an increasing number of very important in modern geopolitics, the examine of that region's languages enjoys expanding attractiveness. regrettably, many language texts during this zone are in keeping with superseded utilization and supply little details on how the language in query is absolutely spoken. Robert Underhill's Turkish Grammar closes this hole with a textual content that provides complete assurance of syntax and utilization in addition to of conventional grammar and offers the scholar a radical grounding in a really priceless vocabulary. Designed as a uncomplicated educating grammar of Turkish for audio system, Turkish Grammar is appropriate for lecture room or person use on the undergraduate or graduate point. Its wide assurance of grammar and syntax makes it compatible additionally to be used as a reference grammar. It accommodates not just systematized classes and data approximately pronunciation, vocabulary, and syntax but in addition tips within the region of utilization and chapter-by-chapter routines. Linguists will realize that the writer has used the framework of generative grammar within the association and presentation of fabric; the textual content, despite the fact that, avoids linguistic jargon and technical discussions in order that scholars untrained in formal linguistics can use the ebook as simply as those that have had such education.
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Extra resources for Turkish Grammar (Turk dili grameri, dil, Turk dili, Turkce grameri)
Remembering from Lesson 2 that the objective case suffix is -I after a consonant, compare the subject and object forms of the following nouns: Nominative Objective Meaning kitap kitabı 'book1 top topu 'ball' Mehmet sepet Mehmedi name sepeti 'basket' armut at armudu 'pear' atı 'horse' ağaç ağacı 'tree' saç saçı 'hair' Lesson Four 42 It is important to notice that in many cases the basic form of a Turkish word is not the form in which the word appears in isolation—not, for example, the form in which you would find the word in the diction ary.
We shall see later that the predicate can be one of a number of things, such as a noun or one of several types of adverbial construction. All of these are sentences where English would have some form of the verb 'be' (such as "Orhan is a fool', 'Orhan is on the fence'). We shall see that the predicate can also be a verb; in such cases, however, the sentence construction is slightly differ ent. We shall therefore find it useful to speak of two types of sentences: those in which the predicate is a verb ("verbal sentences") and those, like the sentences in this lesson, where İt is something else ("nonverbal sentences").
Dir) . It may be useful to repre sent this information graphically, as in Figure 2. 'to be' in such sentences as 'George is hungry', 'George is at home', 'George is running'. We may say that it links the subject with the predicate and is necessary for a complete sentence. In Turkish, this element is not a separate word but is a suffix or group of suffixes attached to the predicate. We shall see later that the auxiliary can be quite complex and can consist of a number of elements. At the moment, however,, we are interested only in the personal endings, or suffixes that indicate the per son and number of the subject.